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The long history of instrument bearing industry and its function and utility
From;    Author:Stand originally
Instrument appearance is check of in order to goes out, measure, observation, computation parameter of sex of composition of all sorts of physical quantity, material, content the appliance that wait or equipment. Watch of vacuum leak detector, pressure, measure chief instrument, microscope, multiplier to wait to all belong to instrument appearance. For broad sense, instrument appearance also can have automata, call the police, signal is delivered and the function such as data processing, the pneumatic in be being used at industry to produce process automata for example adjusts appearance, mix dynamoelectric adjustment appearance, and distributing center model appearance control system all also belongs to instrument appearance. Improvement, can patulous or instrument appearance is compensatory of the person luscious. People is used sensory go inspecting, listen, taste, touch external object, and the instrument appearance such as microscope, telescopic, sound level plan, acidity plan, pyrometer, can be improved and of patulous person these are luscious; Additional, some instruments appearance can be experienced computation plan like gaussmeter, ray and measure the physical quantity that sensory place of the person cannot experience; The ability that returns some instruments appearance to be able to exceed a person goes record, computation and computation, wait like high speed camera, computer. Instrument appearance development already had long history. According to " Han Fei child · has degree " account, china already had the guideline instrument that uses natural magnet to be made in period of the Warring States, call department south. Archaic instrument belongs to in order to more in very long history period the directional, simple instrument that time or uses for metrology. 18 centuries of 17 ~ , the principle that a few physicist of Europe begin to use electric current and magnetic field active force is made simple galvanometric; Use the binoculars that optical lens makes, laid the foundation of electricity and telescope. Other a few used at all sorts of instruments that measure and observe to also get developing gradually then. 19 centuries arrive 20 centuries, industrial Revolution and modern mass production promoted the development of new learning division and new technology, appeared again later computer and dimensional technique, instrument appearance also gets rapid development consequently. Contemporary instrument appearance already was become measure, the technical tool with control and implementation indispensable automation. Instrument appearance is the integrated child of a variety of science and technology, breed is various, use extensive, and update ceaselessly, have a variety of classification methods. Will divide by use purpose and utility, basically measure measures appearance, car appearance, tractor appearance, marine instrument of appearance, aviation appearance, navigation, drive microwave of instrument of test of instrument, radio, carrier wave checks instrument, geological exploration to check instrument, building materials. The instrument appearance that belongs to machinist industry product has appearance of industrial automation appearance, electrical engineering instrument, telescope, machine of vast apparatus of the last day of a lunar month of machine of experiment of analytic instrument, lab instrument and device, material, weather, movie, camera instrument, duplicate shrinks appearance of small machine, instrument yuan tooling of appearance of material of appearance of parts of an apparatus, instrument, instrument 13 kinds. Their versatility is stronger, batch is bigger, or the foundation that needs for place of instrument bearing industry. Appearance of of all kinds instrument presses different feature, for example function, detect control object, structure, principle to wait to still can be divided again for a certain number of group or subclass. If industrial automation appearance presses a function to be able to be divided,be measuring instrument, indication appearance, adjust appearance and carry out implement etc; Among them measuring instrument is divided again by the physical quantity that be measured measure measuring instrument of appearance, pressure for temperature watch, discharge measures appearance, content measuring instrument watch and mechanical quantity measure appearance to wait; Temperature measures appearance to press measure means to be divided again measure lukewarm appearance and blame contact to measure lukewarm meter for contact; Contact measures lukewarm appearance to be able to be divided again for pyroelectricity type, expand type, resistor type. The taxonomy cardinal principle of appearance of other and of all kinds instrument is similar, basically concern with the classification that develops process, use habit and related goods. Instrument appearance still does not have uniform standard in classified respect, of instrument appearance name also put in similar case. The main technique index that measures instrument appearance performance has accuracy, sensitivity, noise to answer time. Accuracy states appearance measures result and the consistent level of true value be metricaled. Grade of commonly used accuracy comes to the accuracy of instrument appearance express, wait like 0.1 class, 0.2 class, 0.5 class, 1 class, 1.5 class, 0.1 class represent appearance total error does not exceed ± 0.1 % limits. The progression such as accuracy is small, the systematic sum of errors that shows appearance random error is small, namely nicety of this kind of appearance. Appearance indication increment causes with this increment when the amount that sensitivity represents to should be measured has a very small increment than, what it mirrors appearance to be able to be measured is the smallest be measured; Answering time is to show appearance inputs rank when jumping a volume, its output the time-interval that arrives at final stability to be worth for the first time by initiative value, the time when general provision stabilizes the 95 % of the value with arriving is accurate; In addition, still have the function technology index such as annulus of repeatability, degree of linearity, sluggish, dead band, drift. The progress of science and technology raises the requirement that updates higher to instrument appearance ceaselessly. In modern science research experiment, nicety checks process of system, production to detect automatically control system, and in all sorts of administrative automation systems, instrument appearance is main technical tool. To improve all sorts of performance of instrument appearance further, increase be able to bear or endure the ability that gets all sorts of harsh use environments, improve dependability and service life, instrument appearance will use new job ceaselessly principle and use new material and yuan of new parts of an apparatus or appliance. Use the principle such as ultrasonic microwave, ray, infrared ray, nuclear magnetic resonance, superconduction, laser for example, and use road of all sorts of new-style semiconductor sensing element, integrated circuit, compositive light, optical fiber to wait for yuan of parts of an apparatus. The miniaturization that its purpose is implementation instrument appearance, reduce weight, reduce production cost and facilitate use wait with maintenance. Another fundamental trend is, the use that passes a microcomputer will improve the performance of instrument appearance, raise automation of instrument appearance itself, intelligence to influence degree and data processing ability. Instrument appearance is used for odd top not only, and can carry standard interface and data channel, with the computer union rises, comprise all sorts of test control to run comprehensive system, satisfy higher demand. Origin: Channel of industry of valve of pump of Hui Cong net

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